Theater to Cinema: The Transition
At the beginning of the XX century, the successes of the national theater and cinema made it possible to speak of Italy as a world power with high culture. However, the period of the late XIX mid-XX centuries, Italian theater historians view from different angles. Some are inclined to believe that this was the period of the formation of the national theater, others “years of delay”, “stagnation”, even “delay” in comparison with European theaters, especially during the reign of Mussolini. In kissanime you will get the best cinema.
The Transformation of Italian Theater
Many Italian theater experts discern the entire first half of the 20th century as a protracted reorganization of the Italian theater, and in many respects due to circumstances beyond the control of the theater itself, with which one cannot but agree. At the same time, there is no doubt a great contribution both to the national cinema and to the world theatrical art of the Verisma Theater, dialect theaters, G. D’Annunzio Theater, Pirandello Art Theater, Variety Theater, Experimental Futurist Theater, the work of many Italian playwrights, actors, directors, artists.
- In contrast to the Edison kinetoscope, after the first cinema sessions in 1896 by the Lumiere firm, the high economic attractiveness of the Italian film market became quite obvious. The projection onto the screen of animated images was extremely popular with ordinary Italians. Soon, French and American film companies rushed to the Apennine Peninsula with the aim of selling in-line film production to owners of numerous cinemas, small cinema halls and movie transfers opening across the country.
Beginning in 1896, prerequisites for the emergence of national cinema appeared in Italy: the creation of the apparatus of F. Alberini for shooting and projection “Kinetograph”, the first professional cameramen V. Kalchina, J. Filippi and others, The world’s first professional movie camera I. Pacquioni, development of a film production organization system from idea to screen appearance, the emergence of professional producers and distributors film rental system G. Lombard, the original system of short editing by L. Fregoli the Italian king of world music and the first great success of the comic tapes “Fregoligrafa” in high society.
In the early years of the XX century
Mainly in the south of Italy, small film studios began to appear usually based on private photo studios. However, the rapid increase in working capital and gaining super-profits of the world’s largest film companies prompted the representatives of Italian big business to create their own large and well-equipped film studios with a large starting capital. So in 1905, the First National Film Factory “Chines” appeared in Rome, after which large film companies began to appear in northern Italy, mainly in Turin, and small ones mostly in Naples: “Ambrosio Film”, “Itala Film”, “Milano” Film”, “Saffi-Comerio”, “Dora Film”, “Chenisio” and others.
This period can be arbitrarily designated the First Wave “Amateurs” with the following features: attracting large capital and foreign specialists, organization of continuous production of short films, mainly of a low art level, the establishment of branches abroad for the sale of film products, lack of close cooperation with the theater and literature, the division of society into supporters and implacable opponents of cinema. The first major crisis of 1908-1909 caused by the overproduction of film products, as well as a convincing victory in 1909 at the first international film competition in Milan (1909, the film “Nero”, a film studio.